Medical aspects of the Crucifixion of Jesus
By Irene McGough RGN ;BSC Hons
THE CRUCIFIXION OF JESUS- WHAT DID OUR LORD ENDURE?
IN THE GARDEN OF GETHSENAME
Firstly lets look at Gethsename. There is a rare condition known as hematidrosis, or bloody sweat.
Luk 22:44 And being in anguish, he prayed more earnestly, and his sweat was like drops of blood falling to the ground.
Under severe emotional stress, tiny capillaries in the sweat glands can break mixing blood with sweat. This on its own could have produced marked weakness and possible shock. Jesus sweat drops of blood for us.
During a scourging the prisoner was stripped of His clothing and His hands tied to a post above His head. The Roman legionnaire stepped forward with the whip consisting of several heavy, leather thongs with two small balls of lead attached near the ends of each. This heavy whip would be brought down with full force again and again across Jesus' shoulders, back, and legs. At first the weighted thongs cut through the skin only, tearing the skin apart. Then, as the blows continued, they would cut deeper into the subcutaneous tissues, firstly producing an oozing of blood from the capillaries and veins of the skin and finally then arterial bleeding from vessels in the underlying muscles. When the skin of the back was hanging in long ribbons, and the entire area was an unrecognizable mass of torn, bleeding tissue he scourging was finally stopped.
EXCRUCIATE: to cause great agony, torment
Latin : ex : out of, from cruciate : cross
The English word excrutiate is derived "from the cross"
Isa 53:5 But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities; the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and with his stripes we are healed.
He was scourged for our healing.
NAIL PIERCED HANDS AND FEET
As Jesus slowly sagged down with more weight on the nails in the wrists, excruciating, fiery pain shot along the fingers and up the arms to explode in the brain.
Joh 20:25 The other disciples therefore said to him, We have seen the Lord. But he said to them, Unless I shall see the print of the nails in His hands, and put my finger into the print of the nails, and thrust my hand into His side, I will not believe.
It was common for the wrists to be pierced, the word hand as we see above included the wrist. Have you ever thought of the nerve damage which would occur here?
The nails in His wrists would put pressure on the median nerve, large nerve trunks which traverse the mid-wrist and hand. As Jesus pushed himself upward to avoid this stretching torment, He would place His full weight on the nail through His feet. This would cause searing agony as the nail tore through the nerves between the metatarsal bones of His feet. Then waves of cramps would sweep over His muscles, knotting them in deep relentless, throbbing pain. With these cramps would come the inability to push Himself upward. Hanging by the arm, the pectoral muscles, the large muscles of the chest, were paralyzed and the intercostal muscles, the small muscles between the ribs, would be unable to act. Air would be drawn into His lungs, but could not be exhaled. Jesus would struggle to raise Himself in order to get even one short breath. Finally, the carbon dioxide level increased in His lungs and in the blood stream, and the cramps partially subsided.
THE LAST WORDS
Jesus would physically and emotionally struggle to say these last words.
Luk 23:34 Jesus said, Father forgive them, for they do not know what they are doing."
Luk 23:43 Jesus answered him"I tell you the truth, today you will be with me in paradise."
John 19: 26 -27. Then looking down at Mary His mother, He said: "Woman, behold your son." Then turning to the terrified, grief-stricken adolescent John , the beloved apostle, He said: "Behold your mother
Mat 27:46 About the ninth hour Jesus cried out in a loud voice, "Eloi, Eloi,lama sabachthani?"--which means, "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?"
HEART AND LUNGS
As the end was rapidly approaching.the loss of tissue fluids would have reached a critical level; the compressed heart would be struggling to pump heavy, thick, sluggish blood to the tissues, and Jesuss tortured lungs would be making a frantic effort to inhale small gulps of air. The markedly dehydrated tissues sent their flood of stimuli to the brain. Jesus gasped His fifth cry: "I thirst." Again we read in the prophetic psalm: "My strength is dried up like a potsherd; my tongue cleaveth to my jaws; and thou has brought me into the dust of death" (Psalm 22:15 KJV).
A sponge soaked in posca, the cheap, sour wine that was the staple drink of the Roman legionnaires, was lifted to Jesus' lips. His body would now be in extremis, and He would feel the chill of death creeping through His tissues. This realization brought forth His sixth word, possibly little more than a tortured whisper: "It is finished." His mission of atonement had been completed. Finally, His seventh and last cry: "Father, into Your hands I commit My spirit."
Jesus would have had a large amount of blood loss after this flogging. He would become hypovolaemic.
Background: Hypovolemic shock refers to a medical or surgical condition in which rapid fluid loss results in multiple organ failure due to inadequate perfusion. Most often, hypovolemic shock is secondary to rapid blood loss (hemorrhagic shock).
BLOOD AND WATER
Psa 22:14 I am poured out like water, and all My bones are spread apart; My heart is like wax; it is melted in the midst of My bowels.
Joh 19:34 But one of the soldiers pierced His side with a lance, and instantly there came out blood and water.
MEDICAL DEFINITION OF PLEURAL EFFUSION:-
A pleural effusion is an accumulation of fluid between the layers of the membrane that lines the lungs and chest cavity.
Fluid in the chest; Pleural Fluid
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Pleural fluid is normally formed in small amounts to lubricate the surfaces of the "pleura," which is the thin membrane that lines the chest cavity and surrounds the lungs. A "pleural effusion" is an abnormal collection of this fluid.
Jesus suffered from this as he was dying on the cross.
He would have problems exhaling because in the position in which Jesus was crucified in prevented normal movement of his diaghram because of the distribution of his bodily weight he would be suffocating to death
Joh 19:37 And again another scripture saith, They shall look on him whom they pierced.
THE CROWN OF THORNS
The Saviour's crown of thorns (Mat_27:29) was according to Palestinian tradition constructed from the twisted branches of a species of Rhamnaceae either the Zizyphus lotus or the Z. spina. The thorns would cause severe bleeding, the thorns could also cause nerve damage.
Mat 27:29 And they platted a crown of thorns and put it upon his head, and a reed in his right hand; and they kneeled down before him, and mocked him, saying, Hail, King of the Jews!
I cannot help but stand in amazement at what the Lord has done for me. The pain he suffered and for me the guilty one. Can you wonder why it is I love Him so? Jesus bore all this for you and me.
What love, what amazing love? What grace, grace beyond all measure.
Isa 53:11 He shall see of the travail of his soul, and shall be satisfied: by the knowledge of himself shall my righteous servant justify many; and he shall bear their iniquities.
Isa 53:12 Therefore will I divide him a portion with the great, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong; because he poured out his soul unto death, and was numbered with the transgressors: yet he bare the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors.
The sinless spotless Son Of God has borne our iniquities on his body on the cross. Praise be to God ,through the death of Jesus we have redemption, if we have given our hearts to Jesus.
1Co 1:18 For the word of the cross is to them that perish foolishness; but unto us who are saved it is the power of God.
Heb 12:2 looking unto Jesus the author and perfecter of our faith, who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising shame, and hath sat down at the right hand of the throne of God.
This same Jesus who has been crucified for us is now at the Fathers right hand on high. What does the cross work of Christ mean to us? It is the power of God unto salvation. Hallelujah!
Bibliography: International Standard Bible Encyclopedia.
Jesus shed His blood so that we could be redeemed and be reconciled back to God.
Rev 5:9 And they sang a new song, saying:
"You are worthy to take the scroll,
And to open its seals;
For You were slain,
And have redeemed us to God by Your blood
Out of every tribe and tongue and people and nation,
Because He shed His blood we are justified by His blood
Rom 5:9 Much more then, having now been justified by His blood, we shall be saved from wrath through Him.
By His blood we are sanctified
Heb 13:12 Therefore Jesus also, that He might sanctify the people with His own blood, suffered outside the gate.
Theblood was shed for our atonement and the atonement was also for our healing.
Isa 53:5 But He was wounded for our transgressions,
He was bruised for our iniquities;
The chastisement for our peace was upon Him,
And by His stripes we are healed.
Isa 53:10 Yet it pleased the LORD to bruise Him;
He has put Him to grief.
When You make His soul an offering for sin,
He shall see His seed, He shall prolong His days,
And the pleasure of the LORD shall prosper in His hand.
The blood is for divine protection (Exodus chapter 12).
Exo 12:23 For the LORD will pass through to strike the Egyptians; and when He sees the blood on the lintel and on the two doorposts, the LORD will pass over the door and not allow the destroyer to come into your houses to strike you.
Jesus blood is imperative for atonement and is a powerful weapon of victory. This was achieved on the victorious cross of Calvary. Jesus blood is still as powerful now, as it was two thousand years ago. If the blood of Jesus had not been shed, mankind would not have been able to enter into a relationship with the living God. The blood is precious.
Heb 9:22 And according to the law almost all things are purified with blood, and without shedding of blood there is no remission.
1Co 1:18 For the message of the cross is foolishness to those who are perishing, but to us who are being saved it is the power of God.
We have been brought near through the blood
Eph 2:13 But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far off have been brought near by the blood of Christ.
Our sins are washed away, made white as snow.
Isa 1:18 "Come now, and let us reason together,"
Says the LORD,
"Though your sins are like scarlet,
They shall be as white as snow;
Though they are red like crimson,
They shall be as wool.
Seven Blood-bought privileges
1. We are at peace with God having been reconciled.
Col 1:19 For God was pleased to have all his fullness dwell in him,
Col 1:20 and through him to reconcile to himself all things, whether things on earth or things in heaven, by making peace through his blood, shed on the cross
2. We are brought near to God.
Eph 2:13 But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far away have been brought near through the blood of Christ.
3. We can receive forgiveness of our sins.
Eph 1:7 In him we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins, in accordance with the riches of God's grace.
4. We are sanctified (made holy).
Heb 13:12 And so Jesus also suffered outside the city gate to make the people holy through his own blood.
1Jn 1:7 But if we walk in the light, as he is in the light, we have fellowship with one another, and the blood of Jesus, his Son, purifies us from all sin.
5. We are justified (just as if I never did it, declared not guilty).
Rom 5:9 Since we have now been justified by his blood, how much more shall we be saved from God's wrath through him!
6. We are made righteous.
Rom 5:17 For if, by the trespass of the one man, death reigned through that one man, how much more will those who receive God's abundant provision of grace and of the gift of righteousness reign in life through the one man, Jesus Christ.
7. We have access to the Holy Place, the throne room of God, when in prayer, access to the Father through Jesus the Mediator.
Heb 10:19 Therefore, brothers, since we have confidence to enter the Most Holy Place by the blood of Jesus,
Luk 14:27 And anyone who does not carry his cross and follow me cannot be my disciple........ 33 In the same way, any of you who does not give up everything he has cannot be my disciple.
THE LAMB THAT WAS SLAIN
Yet He opened not His mouth;
He was led as a lamb to the slaughter,
And as a sheep before its shearers is silent,
So He opened not His mouth.
Act The place in the Scripture which he read was this:
"He was led as a sheep to the slaughter;
And as a lamb before its shearer is silent,
So He opened not His mouth.
Many of us have dogs and cats as household pets. Imagine if you will how they would react if they were to be led like a lamb to the slaughter. In the Old Testament lambs were sacrificed. Lambs and sheep are innocent as far as understanding danger is concerned, an ex-farmer told me. Yet they are indeed born to die.
The Lamb of God, our Saviour and Lord was born to die also, yet He knew exactly what He was doing as he was led as a lamb to the slaughter. He was innocent of all sin, so in that sense He had a lamb like innocence. Yet here we have the God Man, the Son of God, the Lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world going with full knowledge, protesting in full obedience to the Father to be beaten, scourged and wounded without hung on the cross of Calvary for us. See Joh The next day John saw Jesus coming toward him, and said, "Behold! The Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world!
What grace, what mercy that He who is and was God should come into this world, born to die, as the lamb of God paying the price for our sins once and for all.
1Pe 1:17 And if you call on the Father, who without partiality judges according to each one's work, conduct yourselves throughout the time of your stay here in fear;
1Pe 1:18 knowing that you were not redeemed with corruptible things, like silver or gold, from your aimless conduct received by tradition from your fathers,
1Pe 1:19 but with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot.
1Pe 1:20 He indeed was foreordained before the foundation of the world, but was manifest in these last times for you
1Pe 1:21 who through Him believe in God, who raised Him from the dead and gave Him glory, so that your faith and hope are in God.
Praise God we serve a risen Saviour, lets live for Him knowing that we stand not in our own righteousness but His. We are exhorted to holiness and a respectful fear, a deep appreciation of who God is. We need to realize that the One whom we address as Father, our loving Father is the same One who judges His children impartially according to their deeds. We should have a fear of displeasing Him. We should always remember our heavenly destiny and behave ourselves as citizens of heaven. This is our rightful place, see Eph 1:3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ.
We have been redeemed with the precious blood of Christlike the blood of a perfect, unblemished lamb. Christ is a lamb without blemish or spot, that is, He is absolutely perfect, inwardly and outwardly. Jesus was destined to die for us before the creation of the world.. Because we are new creations in Christ Jesus an inner purity should be manifested in love for God and our fellow believers. We see in the lamb that picture of obedience and we see our Lords total obedience to God the Father.
In the same way God calls us His people to obedience. As Jesus was absolutely obedient to His Fathers will, we the church are to be obedient to Him. Obedience is to characterize the lives of the saints. This means that we are to do Gods will and deny fleshly desires. Faithful obedience purifies Gods people.
APPLYING THE BLOOD
The word commanded here means to be given charge of. In the old covenant the priest applied the blood of animals by sprinkling. In the new covenant we receive the blood by faith and sprinkle the blood with our words.
You apply the blood of Jesus to yourself when you say, the blood of Jesus which He shed on the cross was for me, and it makes me free from sin and all unrighteousness. Overcoming is a continual process in this life. Whatever we apply the blood of Jesus to Satan cannot touch. Whatever we apply the blood to is made Holy. When the blood is applied so also is Gods grace and the anointing of the Holy Spirit applied.
We overcome by the blood of the Lamb, Jesus Christ, and the word of our testimony. Through the blood of Jesus, and our witness of it, we overcome and have power to give our life fully for the One who gave His life for us. We apply the blood by the word of our testimony. In the old covenant they applied the blood by sprinkling.
In the new covenant we apply the blood by our words. Every Christians testimony has the same beginning; it began on the cross of Jesus Christ. The shed blood of Jesus Christ is the most important part of any testimony. Without the blood we have no testimony
You can apply the blood of Jesus to your body to receive healing,
He was bruised for our iniquities;
The chastisement for our peace was upon Him,
And by His stripes we are healed.
You can apply the blood of Jesus to your mind, to receive a sound mind. You can apply the blood of Jesus to your home.
Exo 12:13 Now the blood shall be a sign for you on the houses where you are. And when I see the blood, I will pass over you; and the plague shall not be on you to destroy you when I strike the land of Egypt.
You can apply the blood of Jesus to your children.
You can apply the blood of Jesus to anyone and anything that you have authority over or influence upon. It is your right as Gods child. Also in obedience to Gods Holy Spirit you should apply the blood of Jesus to anything or anyone that He tells you to. It is your duty as a royal priest of the most High God.
Because of Jesus shedding His blood on the cross we have access to God.
The word come above means to approach and come near in an attitude of worship. The word boldly means to be out-spoken, frank, and blunt with confidence. We can pour out are hearts to Jesus and receive compassion and grace in return.
At the throne of grace is where we can ask Jesus to change our heart to be like His heart. This is the place that Jesus can change our desires, our attitude, and our perspective, so that we can have His desires, attitude, and see things with His understanding. Because Jesus has shed His blood to set us free, and we now have access to Him at the throne of grace for help anytime we need it, we have no more excuse for sin. In the presence of God temptation disappears.
Mat 26:28 For this is My blood of the new covenant, which is shed for many for the remission of sins.
Remission means that not only are we forgiven of sin but we are also set free from sin. When we go back and become entangled with sin again we have broken the blood covenant. After we have been set free from sin and its influence by the blood of Jesus Christ, if we do sin, it is wilful sin. We have no excuse for sinning wilfully because we do such sins in the freedom that was purchased by the precious blood of Christ. When the blood of Jesus is applied so also is Gods grace applied. To sin wilfully is to presume upon Gods grace.
For if we sin wilfully after we have received the knowledge of the truth, there no longer remains a sacrifice for sins.
This is where many people are today. They have counted the blood of the covenant a common thing and are sinning wilfully, despite the grace that has been given to them through the blood sacrifice of Jesus Christ. A person who is in this state is very miserable. They may again be caught up into the bondage of sin but at the same time their conscience will have a fearful expectation of judgment.
Those who receive communion in an unworthy manner will bring Gods judgment upon themselves.
In Pauls time as it is also the case today those who received salvation willingly often choose to not walk in the freedom provided by the blood of Jesus. Communion is a time of remembering the sacrifice that Jesus made so that we could become one with Him. Receiving communion while still holding onto sin in your life will bring Gods judgment. Notice that the judgment here is chastisement, which is designed to bring you back into right relationship with the Lord, before you suffer total condemnation with the world. Gods judgment upon His people is to restore, not to destroy. God desires that we repent and turn from our wicked ways in word and deed.
Paul told us to examine ourselves before we partake of the bread and drink of communion. Examining yourself is judging yourself so that the Lord will not have to judge you. If you ask the Lord, as David did, to search your heart and reveal any wicked way in you, He will. Search me, O God, and know my heart; Try me, and know my anxieties; And see if there is any wicked way in me, And lead me in the way everlasting. (Psa 139:23-24)
1Co 6:20 For you were bought at a price; therefore glorify God in your body and in your spirit, which are God's.
. Heb 13:20 Now may the God of peace who brought up our Lord Jesus from the dead, that great Shepherd of the sheep, through the blood of the everlasting covenant,
Heb 13:21 make you complete in every good work to do His will, working in you what is well pleasing in His sight, through Jesus Christ, to whom be glory forever and ever. Amen